Chronology of Christian Crusades against Jews

•In the middle of the fourth century the first synagogue was destroyed on command of bishop Innocentius of Dertona in Northern Italy. The first synagogue known to have been burned down was near the river Euphrat, on command of the bishop of Kallinikon in the year 388. [DA450]

•17. Council of Toledo 694: Jews were enslaved, their property confiscated, and their children forcibly baptized. [DA454]

•The Bishop of Limoges (France) in 1010 had the cities' Jews, who would not convert to Christianity, expelled or killed. [DA453]

•First Crusade: Thousands of Jews slaughtered 1096, maybe 12,000 total. Places: Worms 5/18/1096, Mainz 5/27/1096 (1100 persons), Cologne, Neuss, Altenahr, Wevelinghoven, Xanten, Moers, Dortmund, Kerpen, Trier, Metz, Regensburg, Prag and others (All locations Germany except Metz/France, Prag/Czech) [EJ]

•Second Crusade: 1147. Several hundred Jews were slain in Ham, Sully, Carentan, and Rameru (all locations in France). [WW57]

•Third Crusade: English Jewish communities sacked 1189/90. [DO40] •Fulda/Germany 1235: 34 Jewish men and women slain. [DO41]

•1257, 1267: Jewish communities of London, Canterbury, Northampton, Lincoln, Cambridge, and others exterminated. [DO41]

•1290 in Bohemian (Poland) allegedly 10,000 Jews killed. [DO41]

•1337 Starting in Deggendorf/Germany a Jew-killing craze reaches 51 towns in Bavaria, Austria, Poland. [DO41]

•1348 All Jews of Basel/Switzerland and Strasbourg/France (two thousand) burned. [DO41]

•1349 In more than 350 towns in Germany all Jews murdered, mostly burned alive (in this one year more Jews were killed than Christians in 200 years of ancient Roman persecution of Christians). [DO42]

•1389 In Prag 3,000 Jews were slaughtered. [DO42]

•1391 Seville's Jews killed (Archbishop Martinez leading). 4,000 were slain, 25,000 sold as slaves. [DA454] Their identification was made easy by the brightly colored "badges of shame" that all jews above the age of ten had been forced to wear.

•1492: In the year Columbus set sail to conquer a New World, more than 150,000 Jews were expelled from Spain, many died on their way: 6/30/1492. [MM470-476]

Surpisingly few know that Nazi extermination camps in World War II were by no means the only ones in Europe at the time. In the years 1942-1943 also in Croatia existed numerous extermination camps, run by Catholic Ustasha under their dictator Ante Paveliç, a practising Catholic and regular visitor to the then pope. There were even concentration camps exclusively for children!

In these camps - the most notorious was Jasenovac, headed by a Franciscan friar - orthodox-Christian serbians (and a substantial number of Jews) were murdered. Like the Nazis the Catholic Ustasha burned their victims in kilns, alive (the Nazis were decent enough to have their victims gassed first). But most of the victims were simply stabbed, slain or shot to death, the number of them being estimated between 300,000 and 600,000, in a rather tiny country. Many of the killers were Franciscan friars. The atrocities were appalling enough to induce bystanders of the Nazi "Sicherheitsdient der SS", watching, to complain about them to Hitler (who did not listen). The pope knew about these events and did nothing to prevent them. [MV]




K.Deschner, Abermals krähte der Hahn, Stuttgart 1962.


K.Deschner, Opus Diaboli, Reinbek 1987.


P.W.Edbury, Crusade and Settlement, Cardiff Univ. Press 1985.


S.Eidelberg, The Jews and the Crusaders, Madison 1977.


H.C.Lea, The Inquisition of the Middle Ages, New York 1961.


M.Margolis, A.Marx, A History of the Jewish People.


A.Manhattan, The Vatican’s Holocaust, Springfield 1986.

See also V.Dedijer, The Yugoslav Auschwitz and the Vatican, Buffalo NY, 1992.


J.T.Noonan, Contraception: A History of its Treatment by the Catholic Theologians and Canonists, Cambridge/Mass., 1992.


Newscast of S2 Aktuell, Germany, 10/10/96, 12:00.


D.Stannard, American Holocaust, Oxford University Press 1992.


German news magazine Der Spiegel, no.49, 12/2/1996.


A True Account of the Most Considerable Occurrences that have Hapned in the Warre Between the English and the Indians in New England, London 1676.


F.Turner, Beyond Geography, New York 1980.


H.Wollschläger: Die bewaffneten Wallfahrten gen Jerusalem, Zürich 1973.

(This is in german and what is worse, it is out of print. But it is the best I ever read about crusades and includes a full list of original medieval Christian chroniclers' writings).


Estimates on the number of executed witches:

•N.Cohn, Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch Hunt, Frogmore 1976, 253.

•R.H.Robbins, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, New York 1959, 180.

•J.B.Russell, Witchcraft in the Middle Ages, Ithaca/NY 1972, 39.

•H.Zwetsloot, Friedrich Spee und die Hexenprozesse, Trier 1954, 56.


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